在发展中国家，许多人死于缺乏基本药物。在非洲，两大健康挑战是艾滋病毒和疟疾。根据“世卫组织”2010年发布的数据，约有3亿人因疟疾而患病，主要分布在撒哈拉以南非洲地区，超过7000万人因此死亡。需要注意的是，5岁以下有免疫问题的儿童很容易感染疟疾，因此儿童死亡率在85%以上(Kaplan, Ritz, Vitello, and Wirtz, 2012, p.219)。
For various health problems in the world, essential drugs offer simple and cost-effective solution but only when they are easily available, affordable and used properly. Diseases like malaria, tuberculosis, Shigella dysentery, bacterial meningitis and African Trypanosomiasis are some of the examples of serious health problems in developing and poor nations like Asia and Africa for which successful treatment is lacking (Kaplan, Ritz, and Vitello, and Wirtz, 2012, p. 215). Treatment for these serious diseases is prohibited as there is lack of effective drugs and also because the drugs are highly expensive. It can also be a situation that the drugs have been withdrawn from the market.
In developing countries, a large number of people die because of lack of essential medications. In Africa the two major health challenges are HIV and Malaria. According to the data published by “WHO” in 2010, about 300 million people fall ill because of malaria mainly in sub-Saharan Africa and above 70 million people cease to exist. It must be noticed that children below 5 years with immunity problems can easily get captured by malaria and therefore fatality in children is above 85% (Kaplan, Ritz, Vitello, and Wirtz, 2012, p.219).