論文代筆價錢-物質成癮

19 9月 論文代筆價錢-物質成癮

本文主要講述物質成癮,操作性條件作用基於行為及其後果。根據操作性條件反射原理,物質成癮只有在對人有益時才會發生。大多數濫用物質提供愉快的體驗(Strain, 2009)。積極的和消極的強化在決定一個人是否會繼續使用這種物質上起著重要的作用。人們用藥物和物質來處理負面和不愉快的生活事件。最初的欣快感增強了幸福感,緩解了壓力和身體上的疼痛,增強了對物質的使用。本篇論文代筆價錢文章由英國論文人EducationRen教育網整理,供大家參考閱讀。

Operant conditioning is based on behaviour and its consequences. According to operant conditioning principle, substance addiction occurs only if it is rewarding to the person. Most abused substances provide pleasurable experience (Strain, 2009). Positive and negative reinforcements play an important role in determining whether the person will continue the use of the substance. People use drugs and substance to deal with negative and unpleasant life events. Initial euphoria, feeling of enhances happiness, relief from stress and physical pain reinforces the use of substance.
The initial response to substance is considered rewarding. Positive reinforcement leads to continuous and habitual use of the substance. Euphoria and “high” are associated with positive reinforcement. Negative reinforcement occurs when there are withdrawal symptoms. It occurs when person is trying to “avoid reality”. People engage in substance use when they are trying to help environment from oppression.
Pavlovian and operant conditioning have led to increased dependency and drug tolerance. Dependency refers to increased physiological need for substance to achieve certain results. Tolerance refers to decreased sensitivity to the drug as a result of repeated exposure. Tolerance to the drug can be conditioned to the environment where it is consumed. Operant conditioning plays an important role in alcohol tolerance. Behaviour motivated by drugs of abuse is thought to be mediated by hypothalamic neurons (Martin-Fardon et al (2016). Endocannabinoid system is neurobiological mechanism that is involved in drug addiction and relapse mechanism (Maldonado, Valverde and Berrendero, 2006).
Pavlovian and operant conditioning have been used for treatment of substance use. Behaviour modification is used to treat harmful behaviours. Cue exposure therapy is based on principles of pavlovian conditioning. The environmental cues are considered as conditioned stimulus. De-addiction is based on the extinction. Extinction is the process where the conditioned stimulus is presented without unconditioned stimulus. It causes the conditioned response to weaken and eventually disappear. In cue therapy, environmental cues are presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus that is substance.
英國論文人EducationRen教育網深得廣大客戶的支持和厚愛。我們的服務目標:締造精品,善待一生!我們的服務宗旨:誠信至上,服務至上,客戶至上!我們的服務理念:專業專注,優質服務!如果需要英國論文代筆,就點擊上方欄目列表,各種代寫服務等著你,客服24小時在線,歡迎諮詢!