Trade agreements between nations gave rise to a number of exchange programs of medicine excellence and research and development, which helped the healthcare sector to invent new medicines for life threatening diseases like stroke, cancer, diabetes, cholera, malaria, etc. Of the many dangerous diseases, small pox and chicken pox have almost been wiped out of the world with minimum traces of them left to be eradicated. However, challenges remain because the discovery of plague, bird flu, swine flu, dengue, and other new diseases were able to take many adult lives in the last two decades. This has affected life expectancy in developing countries to a marginal bit.
Scholars argue that the preventive measures by major governments of introducing mass prevention camps providing free medicines for polio, and other diseases helped raise awareness among adults, who became hygienic in their lifestyle. The regulation of the food market and of the urban environment also supported the increase in life expectancy. These all would help adults to breathe fresh air, eat fresh unadulterated food, drink uncontaminated water, and with deliberate self-discipline they could live longer and healthier without diseases.
As population ages with more number of adults and less number of young people, it can probably pose many challenges for society, both perceived and unperceived. The perceived challenges can be analysed, assessed, and deciphered for the impacts it can have on society, helping further to initiate actions that can reverse the trend of population ageing.
The most primary challenge of population ageing is the declining people in the workforce, and their subsequent inability of sustaining economic progress, leading to devastating conditions for life. With current estimates of growth cycles, the world population aged above 60 will double to 2 billion people by the year 2050 (Nikolova, 2016). These are dangerous statistics leading to severe socio-economic challenges for the aged. The number of working individuals will decline, fertility rates shall decline, and the number of working people for aged people decrease. This can pose challenges for the aged population to stabilise themselves financially and socially. If there are more aged people, the government spending on healthcare, insurance, and medication shall increase, affecting the provision for other investments and the sustenance of a working force (Cotis, 2003). However, when the number of aged people in a country increases and younger generation decreases, the government would also have prioritised their spending patterns as per the demands. That said, there would always remain challenges for the government to disseminate treasury funds for the aged population, who would probably have to support themselves financially.