13 5月 论文辅导：药物安全问题引起的争论
药物安全问题引起了广泛的争论。人类和动物的基因构成存在很多差异(Bramble & Fischer, 2015)。因此，对该物种有效的药物不会以同样的方式对人类有效。除此之外，在动物身上进行的许多试验都没有结果。这种测试仅仅成为在动物身上测试不同化学物质的借口。这相当于虐待动物。为了促进这些做法，扩大了动物试验的益处。事实上，人们被灌输了许多虚假的陈述。在安眠药中，沙利度胺在怀孕的动物身上没有任何先天缺陷。然而，它会影响人类婴儿并导致10000多种畸形(Martic-Kehl et al.， 2016)。关节炎药物万络对动物有很大的影响，尽管如此，它仍会导致成人2万多例心脏病发作和心肌梗死。94%的动物实验在人类身上失败。
85种HIV疫苗被发现对灵长类动物有效，但是没有显示出对人类的任何影响(Kuhse, 2015)。因此可以说，在动物身上进行药物测试可能会对人产生不同的影响，而这种活动并不能保证实际的影响或药物安全。动物实验的另一个问题是成本。下面将对它们进行探讨。动物需要生活在特定的环境中，需要服用特定的药物。他们应该生活在令人兴奋的环境下，了解药物的影响。这就导致了制药公司必须花很多钱才能达到潜在的效果。药品检测过程中产生了大量的费用(Crane, 2015)。这再次反映在药品的定价上。参与动物实验的企业表示，最终价格将达到一个临界点，这些药物的生产规模将超过这些公司的初始成本。这将导致流程中所有涉众的利益。
The issue of drug safety is widely debated. The genetic constitution of humans and animals are found to have many differences (Bramble & Fischer, 2015). Hence the medicines that work for the species would not work for people in the same way. Apart from this a number of testings that are done in the animals never reach fruition. The testing becomes a mere excuse to test different chemicals on the animals. This is tantamount to torture technique in the animals. In an effort to promote these practices there is the amplification of benefits of animal testing. In reality the people are been fed with a number of false statements. In the sleeping pill thalidomide does not show any birth defect in pregnant animals. However it affects the human babies and causes more than 10000 deformities (Martic-Kehl et al., 2016). Arthritis drug vioxx shows great impact on animals, nonetheless this causes more than 20000 heart attacks and myocardial infraction in adults. 94% of the animals tests fail in humans.
85 HIV vaccines were found to work well with primates however failed to show any impact on humans (Kuhse, 2015). Hence it can be argued that the drug testing in animals could lead to different impacts on people and the actual impact or drug safety cannot be promised by this activity. The other issue with the animal testing is the costs involved. They are probed in the following. The animals need to live in a certain condition and take in certain drugs. They should live in captivity under exciting circumstances to understand the impacts of the drugs. This leads to the issues that the drug company must spend a lot to achieve the potential results. There is a lot of expenses that are incurred in the drug testing process (Crane, 2015). This is again reflected in the pricing of the drugs. The businesses involved in animal testing state that eventually the prices would reach a tip off point and the drugs would be produced at a massive level overriding the initial costs incurred by the companies. These lead to the benefit of all the stakeholders involved in the process.