02 5月 英国大学论文：医疗器材费用
EpiPen的价格自2009年以来已经上涨了5倍。EpiPen是一种至关重要的注射设备，它可以帮助患者避免致命的过敏反应。其价格的快速上涨震惊了立法者和消费者。有人指出，该装置没有发生任何具体的变化，因此，高价的理由不能与收回研究和开发的费用有关。一个关键的原因是，政府一直不允许医疗保险对处方药物的价格进行谈判(Powell et al.， 2013)。在英国和加拿大等其他发达国家，几种药物的成本要低得多，这些国家尚未与药品制造商进行谈判。制药企业可以通过相互支付延迟引进仿制药的费用来抑制竞争。2013年，最高法院裁定，监管机构可以考虑以反垄断为由对这些协议提出质疑，但没有任何关于非法交易的声明。
随着时间的推移，价格的增长将反映出产品的重要、多重特性和产品所提供的价值。更高的成本已经促使至少10个州的官员，包括南卡罗来纳，马里兰和科罗拉多，推动更多的急救人员在培训中使用常规注射器注射肾上腺素(Bloom, 2014)。为了改用普通注射器，将协助节省至少2 200美元。这将有助于支付培训紧急医疗技术人员的费用。只要向病人提供关于使用注射器的教育，99%的epipen是有效的。然而，有人指出，对无法负担EpiPen的病人使用注射器仍然是明智的。自2004年通胀调整后，物价已上涨逾450%。医疗领域的一些应急服务机构直接向医疗供应企业采购的费用甚至更高，因此这个问题必须在紧急的基础上加以解决。
The prices of EpiPen have ended up increasing five times since the year 2009. EpiPen is a crucial device used for giving injections in order to save individuals from deadly reactions to allergy. The rapid increase in its prices have shocked lawmakers as well as consumers. It has been stated that no specific changes have taken place in the device and hence, the justification for high prices cannot be related with recouping the costs of research and development. One key reason is that the government has not been allowing Medicare for the negotiation of prices for the prescribed drugs (Powell et al., 2013). The cost of several medicines is significantly less across other developed nations such as Britain and Canada, which have not been negotiating with the manufacturers of drug. Pharmaceutical organizations can be seen squelching competition as an effect by making payment to each other for delaying the generic drugs introduced. In the year 2013, it was ruled by the Supreme Court that regulators can consider challenging these agreements on the grounds of anti-trust, but there had not been any declaration about illegal deals.
With time, the increment in price will be reflecting the significant, multiple features of product and the value provided by the product. The higher cost has been driving officials across a minimum of 10 states that include South Carolina, Maryland, and Colorado for pushing more EMTs in training with the provision of epinephrine injections by the use of regular syringes (Bloom, 2014). In order to switch towards regular syringes, there will be assistance in saving a minimum of 2,200 dollars. This will be beneficial to make payment for providing training in emergency medical technicians. As far as patients are provided with education regarding the use of syringes, 99 per cent of the EpiPens are effective. However, it has been stated that it is still sensible to use syringes on patients who are not able of affording the EpiPen. There has been a rise in the prices by more than 450 per cent since the year 2004 after the adjustments were made in inflation. Some of the emergency services in the medical field making direct purchases from the companies of medical supply make even more payment and hence, the issue has to be resolved on urgent basis.