英国论文代写:国内生产总值

24 10月 英国论文代写:国内生产总值

英国论文代写:国内生产总值

截至2009年,中国的国内生产总值已达345050亿元人民币,1980年达到9.5%的平均增长率,成为美国,欧盟和日本的第四大经济体(李和张,2013年)。 2012年,中国超越日本排在第三位。然而,过去30年来,农业劳动力一直呈下降趋势,下降约38%(李和张,2013)。根据Monchuk,Chen和Bonaparte(2013)的数据,1980年,中国劳动力人口达到4.29亿人,近70%来自农业。到2009年,绝对数量上升到7.98亿劳动力,但只有38%被留给农业。换句话说,过去30年来,农业劳动力人口增加了只有723万。下图显示了中国农业劳动力占总劳动力百分比的趋势。
一般来说,农业与中国其他行业的劳动密集程度相对较高(Chen et al,2006)。这意味着中国农业生产的增加将需要更多的劳动力。但是,随着农业劳动力的下降,产量一定会有负增长。尽管中国的劳动力一直在下降,但是随着劳动生产率的逐年上升(图3),这意味着中国逐渐克服农业的劳动密集型。但是,与发达国家相比,农业生产力非常低,如图4所示。
而且工业化进程也很高,国内生产总值的比重正在从农业的第一产业向正在制造业的第二产业转变。从农业的间接和直接收窄,中国GDP能否代表这个行业的变化已经成为一个问题。因此,本文的目的之一是估计未来几年中国农业与GDP增长率变化相关的增长率。

英国论文代写:国内生产总值

Till 2009, the GDP of China had reached 34050 billion RMB with 9.5% average growth rate from 1980, which made it the fourth largest economy in the world behind the US, EU, and Japan (Li & Zhang, 2013). In 2012, China had surpassed Japan took the third place. However, in the past 30 years agriculture has been facing a constant downward sloping in labour force: a decrease of about 38% (Li & Zhang, 2013). Based on Monchuk, Chen and Bonaparte’s (2013) data, in 1980, China had 429 million people recorded in labour force, and nearly 70% were in agriculture. By 2009, the absolute number rose to 798 million in labour force, but only 38% were left to agriculture. In other words, the population of agricultural labour force increased by only 7.23 million in the past 30 years. The following figure gives a trend of percentage of labour force as a percent of total labor force in agriculture in China.
In general, agriculture is relatively more labour intensive as against other industries in China (Chen et al, 2006). This means that increase in agricultural production in China will need more labour. However, with the decline in work force available to agriculture, the output is bound to have negative growth eventually. Even though the labor force in China has been declining, per worker productivity has risen (figure 3) over the years which means that, gradually China is overcoming the labor intensive nature of agriculture. But when compared against the developed nations, the agricultural productivity is very low as shown in figure 4.
Also with a high pace of industrialisation, the share of GDP is shifting from the first industry, which is agriculture, to the second industry, which is manufacturing. From the indirect and direct narrowing in agriculture, could the Chinese GDP still represent the change of this industry has become a question. Thus one of the aims in this article is to estimate the growth rate of agriculture in China for the coming years connected to GDP growth rate changing.