23 5月 英国研究生申请文书：激励员工
这个理论是由利昂·费斯廷格提出的，因其能做出不明显的预测而闻名。这两个要素之间的关系可以是和谐的，即一个要素对另一个要素意味着什么，不相关的，即没有一个要素受另一个要素的影响，不和谐的，即另一个要素隐含着另一个要素的对立面。失调的状态是有压力的，必须找到减轻压力的方法(Lchniowski and Shaw, 1999, p.709)。它可以通过各种方式来减少，例如改变行为因素，态度因素的改变，最后通过增加具有行为因素的认知协调因素。马斯洛对人类的需求提出了丰富而全面的观点。它解释了人们行为的不同方式，为什么员工会受到某些因素的激励，以及管理者在激励下属时必须集中注意哪些因素。这一理论在职业经理人中得到了特别的认可。
This theory was proposed by Leon Festinger and was famous due to its ability of making non-obvious predictions. The relationship between the two elements can be in form of consonant i.e. one implies to other, irrelevance i.e. no element is affected by the other and dissonant i.e. the opposite of other is implied to another. The state of dissonance is stressful and ways must be found for reducing the stress (Lchniowski and Shaw, 1999, p.709). It can be reduced in various ways such as making changes in the behavioural element, attitudinal element changes and lastly through the addition of cognitive consonant elements having behavioural element.A rich and comprehensive view was provided by Maslow on human needs. It works for explaining the different ways in which people behave, why employees are motivated through some factors and lastly which factors managers must concentrate while they work for inspiring their subordinates. This theory was well recognized specially among the practising managers.
This recognition was because of the intuitive logics and easy understanding of the theory. The assumptions like an employee is not motivated through a satisfied need and needs at lower levels must be satisfies first by the employees before they move to the next level of needs in the need hierarchy theory. These assumptions were accepted universally. It was found in the research in under developed countries that top priority was given by workers for satisfying their lower level needs and they expect their managers to take care of their lower needs.The long-term growth strategy of Japanese firms is badly hurt due to the breakdown of preferential trading between corporation members of various businesses and intern-firm network system of cross-shareholding. The ability of Japanese manufacturing firms was also affected due to these factors and the employees were protected from the various risks of markets. The changes in the HR practices of Japan were also due to the deregulation. Due to deregulation, the markets of Japan became easily accessible for the international and national competitors.