大学申请文书:营销者总是对消费者的行为感兴趣

04 4月 大学申请文书:营销者总是对消费者的行为感兴趣

大学申请文书:营销者总是对消费者的行为感兴趣

营销者总是对消费者的行为感兴趣。消费者是决定、购买和利用产品或服务来满足自己欲望和需求的个人。在今天的世界里,消费者得到了更好的信息,因为他们可以通过技术来验证产品,并寻找更好的替代品。消费者的决策行为是一个复杂的术语,它依赖于许多特征。消费者在购买时受到一定因素的影响,购买决定是这些因素的结果,如购买习惯、购买时选择的零售商、购物习惯、喜欢的品牌等心理、文化和社会因素。一些研究人员对消费者的决策行为提出了不同的观点。一些人强调消费者通过质量和效用来评估产品(Zeithaml, 1988;而其他人则注意到了信息处理在决策中的作用(Swinyard, 1993)。也有研究人员提出,在选择特定产品时,整体满意度是一个重要的决策因素,而其他学者则建议消费者通过产品的价值来判断产品。

大学申请文书:营销者总是对消费者的行为感兴趣
高介入的顾客大多是基于认知信息做出决定的(Swinyard, 1993),低介入的消费者可能会使用简单的决策过程来判断产品的质量(Steenkamp, 1989)。“线索利用理论”预测消费者使用线索(品牌名称、价格、颜色和广告)来获得优质服务或产品。当购买者的参与度较低,并且需要降低购买的明显风险时,线索可以作为评估产品质量的启发式。根据效用理论,当消费者做出不确定的决定时,他们的行为更加理性。决策基于所有相关变量的线性方程,因此将在此基础上选择最高效用项。但是这个模型并没有证明,当选择或购买他们的决策时,总是可靠或理性的。许多因素在决策过程中起作用,而购买者并不总是意识到这一点。因此,提出了“满意模型”作为“实用新型”的替代方案。在满意模型下,消费者如果对商品满意,就会终止决策过程。

大学申请文书:营销者总是对消费者的行为感兴趣

Marketers are always interested in the consumer behavior. Consumers are those individuals who decide, purchase and utilize the products or services to gratify their desires and needs. In today’s world, consumers are better informed as they can verify the products and look out for better alternatives because of technology. The decision making behavior of a consumer is a complex term that depends on many characteristics. Consumers are influenced by certain factors while buying and the purchase decision is the result of these factors, such as the buying habit, the retailer he choose while buying, the shopping habits, the brands he prefer and other psychological, cultural and social factors. Several researchers have illustrated different viewpoints about consumer decision making behavior. Some have emphasized that consumers assess the product through quality and utility (Zeithaml, 1988; Levy, 1999) while others have noted the role of information processing in decision making (Swinyard, 1993). It has also been suggested by some researchers that the overall satisfaction is an important factor in decision making when choosing a particular product, while other academicians have recommended that consumers judge the product by its value.

大学申请文书:营销者总是对消费者的行为感兴趣
The customer with high involvement mostly decides on the basis of cognitive information (Swinyard, 1993) and consumers with low involvement may use simple decision making process to judge the quality of the products (Steenkamp, 1989). The “Cue utilization theory” predicts that a consumer uses the cues (brand name, price, colour and advertising) for getting quality service or products. Cues can act as heuristics in evaluating the quality of the product when the buyer participation is little and when there is a need to decrease the apparent risk of purchase. According to utility theory, consumers act more rationally when they decide on uncertain decisions. The decisions are based on linear equation on all the relevant variable and thus the highest utility item will be selected on that basis. But this model failed to prove that, while selecting or purchasing their decisions are always reliable or rational. Many factors play in a background in the process of decision making where the buyers are not always aware of. Therefore, a “Satisficing model” was developed as an alternative to “Utility model”. Under Satisficing model, consumer will end their decision making process if the items are satisfying to them.