In some of the cases, qualitative research is carried out through interviews, such as listening to someone recounting an incident that happened in the past. The incident can be any wartime experience or any other event happened in the past. When qualitative research is done in the form of an interview, open-ended questions are asked by an interviewer and the answers of the participants are simply recorded. Many other issues arise including the personal bias one. For example, the reaction of the researcher to the responses of the subject can either encourage or discourage the dialogue in a particular direction. Also the researcher has to be very careful about the questions he is asking. He should not ask leading questions.A case-study is defined as an in-depth analysis of people, events and relationships which is bounded by some unifying factor. This can be understood by a simple example of principal leadership in middle schools. Some of the important aspects include the principal’s behaviours and views on leadership.
It also includes the perceptions of those people who are involved in interaction with her/him, the school context, constituents that are present outside, comparison to other different type of principals, and many other quantitative variables of significance. Many times it is seen that a case study is labelled as “ethnographic case study”. Generally, it is referred to as a more comprehensive study which is basically focused on a person or a bunch of people as was explained in the above example (Field, 2009).It is not necessary for the case-studies to be focused on people. However, to look at a case study a program can be conducted to observe how it accomplishes its expected results. For example, the Department of Education can arrange case study to understand the development done by various programs organised by it at different levels.(Wisniewski,2010)The various advantages of carrying out quantitative researches with help of various examples are explained in the proceeding section.